Makary Stasiak - strona prywatna polski english
Publications - Subjective model of social work

Project as a subjectively creative task. For a conscious man, the future is a space to be developed. It is to be a continuation of the present. Thus, one can ask a question whether the present education and management could be changed so that in the future people act more skilfully and more effectively.

Not everything can be changed, not the whole repetitive activity of the subject but only its small fragments. The subject should not change most of its previous way of management. People cannot disturb the functioning style and the incoming attitude, as they would lose their ability to survive. Moreover, the energy resources that make it possible for them to make a change are also limited. One can allot only a part of the possessed energy surplus to the modification of one?s functioning style.

An idea and a plan for a change in the management style is usually called a project. It consists of several stages. It starts with an assessment of its value, i.e. the expected profit increase. What is evaluated is the measure of the expected results, the costs of the change and the amount of the expected risk related to the project implementation. If the assessment is positive, one can go on to further project stages. If it is negative, the project should be abandoned or its conception should be changed. The aim of a project is to improve the subject?s efficiency. Modification of the subject?s functioning aims at achieving better management results than before. However, each new activity entails a risk of missing and in practice it may turn out that instead of the expected increase in efficiency it will decrease.

Due preparation of a project is an important element of its future success. Further project stages are a precisely developed plan, project implementation and maintenance. While developing changes it is important to have appropriate knowledge and creative skills.

Planning the future by resolving problems that arose in the past.
The easiest way to improve the future is to resolve problems encountered in our previous activity. As a result of solving problems from the past in an effective way, the future will be changed and improved.

In authoritative education and management an arising problem means that the management style is wrong. If a leader ? a teacher manages in an appropriate way, problems should not arise. If there is a problem it means that there is a mistake in the otherwise appropriate management way. Classical leaders try not to notice or even conceal the encountered problems. In innovative management style an arising problem is an opportunity to change and improve the way activities are conducted. A problem is seen as a positive phenomenon. In subject?s innovative management and methodology one purposefully looks for problems and introduces fixed procedures and persons responsible for identifying and solving them.

The problem-solving process includes a number of stages:
- problem identification
- defining problems and their subjective aspect
- solving a problem in subjective and objective aspects
- framing an activity plan
- project implementation
- project maintenance

Most importantly one has to realise that something could be changed, that the present state is unsatisfactory. All people have qualities of a behavioural individual for whom the present state is determined and assessed positively. Each change entails fear and risk.

An extremely important element is to realise the need for development. People first experience this need and only then they are willing to act and implement it. The starting point for the need to appear is identifying the problem.

The second stage is defining the problem. In order for the problem to be successfully solved it is usually necessary to redefine it into a new form, as problems usually become more specific in a language other than the colloquial one. For example, it can be a scientific language but not only, e.g. Wiliam Gordon, the originator of synectics, emphasises in his works that in order to solve any problem in a creative way in an individual dimension (a student) or a group dimension (a company) one has to distance oneself from the familiar elements in order to gain a new perspective on the problem. Then it has a form that is easy to solve and is analogous to familiar problems that are solved by science.

In case of innovative management and work with a subject ? a pupil, a student, it is recommended to pay attention to the subjective aspect. It means that it is important whether the encountered problem can be easily solved by changing the person?s environment or by changing their personality predisposition. The analysed subject is not just one person. It can be an organisation, a school, a university, a company, a nation etc. The subject can consist of a number of cooperating people. Solving a problem in a subjective aspect consists in the improvement, predisposition, skills, organisation etc. of this independent subject.

The initial understating of a problem is transformed into a relatively easily solved form that captures its essence. The problem transformed into a state reflecting its essence is described in a language containing its analogous solutions. The final problem definition is a basis for solving it in a relatively easy way.

Deciphering a problem is a description of a new, sought after state. It does not exist yet. It has to be obtained, produced. Activity is usually preceded by a plan whose aim is to achieve it.

Implementation is a project consisting of an activity plan and its implementation, which is a process leading to a situation that is a solution to the problem.

The last stage of the problem solving process is problem maintenance. Even the best project when confronted with reality should undergo certain modifications. Project maintenance means modifying it during implementation, so that it can be accomplished and the goal achieved.

A project as a challenge. A project is the smallest activity unit that leads to a change in the subject?s functioning. The aim of the change is to improve the efficiency. It can only be achieved by the evolution of the activity manifested on the outside and by enriching the personality aspect of the subject that accompanies the outside activity.

People usually live in a habitual way. Their activity is limited to previously determined patterns. If they take up challenges, they are moderated projects which only slightly go beyond the patterns, both in subjective and objective terms.

A typical project usually is associated with achieving external results. People look for success in their external activity. They do not pay attention to the inside part and their personality predisposition. According to common beliefs, personality is something that cannot be changed.

However, one can also find especially ambitious people who behave differently. Such individuals usually take up challenges, i.e. undertake to carry out projects that greatly exceed their current skills and strength. They take up projects beyond their strength, which gives subjective results. They, as if additionally, gain new personality competences. People of this type are called artists. When they carry out a task and want to manage it, they reorganise the manifested behaviour. A person struggling with a challenge, at first is not able to do much with what they successfully learn during their struggle. Artists, overcoming difficulties one after another, develop the skill they have and learn. As a result of creative activity, artists achieve what previously was completely unachievable.

Ambitious artists who take up challenges (in whatever discipline), as if by the way, learn new skills and develop their potential. The amount of work and determination in its performance are factors that favour deep personality restructuring. In their work the final effect is not as important as overcoming new obstacles and difficulties. When artists take up challenges, they deeply restructure the manifested behaviour, thanks to which they quickly enrich their personalities.

Artists working on an external work in fact transform themselves. The subjective result is a fundamental output of the challenge. Although the external achievements can also be of importance.

Challenges are projects entailing high risk for their authors. They are also projects during the implementation of which authors are so focused and determined to achieve the expected goals and willing to deeply restructure their manifested behaviour that they are also ready to change themselves.

It has to be noticed that a challenge means that a person consciously takes up this particular effort. The same effort for someone who is unprepared and unwilling to take it up usually turns out to be excessive. In such a case it is treated as suffering and the person experiencing it feels really hurt.

A challenge is a special kind of a test of strength in confrontation with the performed work. An external work is just an excuse. By changing external substance people change themselves, strongly enriching their potential.

A challenge is usually of individual character. It is a work that exceeds the possibilities of a given person. It often happens that the same work is easy for a number of other people. It is especially difficult for the very person who undertook its reorganisation. The kind of work, the discipline, the goal to be achieved are of no importance. The work which is a challenge is always difficult for the particular person who is ready to face it.

Being an artist is the way work is performed, undertaking work of high risk level and the attitude manifesting itself through the willingness to restructure one?s own personality in confrontation with the work. An artist is not necessarily a person who performs decorative work or paints. Such people are characterised by their attitude towards the work. Artists are people who take up projects that ordinary people would withdraw from. Years later the individuals who managed to fulfil the challenges they had taken up are described in textbooks concerned with the history of the development of mankind.